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The key to sustainable agriculture: making the most of microbial biodiversity

When thinking about agriculture, it's natural to focus on the plants and animals that play a key role. However, we shouldn't forget an essential and often overlooked player in this system: microbial biodiversity.

La clé de l'agriculture durable : valoriser la biodiversité microbienne

The fundamental role of microbial biodiversity in soil fertility

Microbial biodiversity or microbiota refers to the variety of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, that live in soils, plants and animals. Their presence and diversity are crucial to the proper functioning of agricultural ecosystems, as these micro-organisms play a major role in soil fertility. They break down organic matter into essential plant nutrients. They also promote their absorption, particularly of nitrogen and phosphorus, thereby contributing to plant growth. By promoting microbial biodiversity, farmers can therefore reduce their dependence on chemical fertilizers, cutting costs while having a beneficial effect on the environment.

Crop protection and reduced pesticide use thanks to microorganisms

A rich soil microbiota is also crucial for protecting crops against disease. Certain micro-organisms in fact have the ability to suppress the pathogens responsible for plant diseases by producing antibacterial or antifungal substances. By incorporating farming practices that promote microbial biodiversity, such as crop rotation and the use of cover crops, farmers can reduce the need to use chemical pesticides.

Microbial biodiversity: a pillar of resilience in the face of climate change

In addition, soil microbiota contribute to the resilience of agricultural ecosystems in the face of climate change. Microorganisms help regulate soil temperature and moisture, which is crucial for plant growth. They can also help plants to resist environmental stresses such as drought or extreme heat. By encouraging microbial biodiversity, farmers can therefore better cope with climatic hazards, which are becoming increasingly frequent and intense.


Finally, microbial biodiversity is an indicator of the overall health of agricultural ecosystems. A decline in microbial diversity can be a sign of ecological imbalance, caused by intensive farming practices or excessive use of chemicals. Therefore, by preserving microbial biodiversity, farmers can safeguard the health of their ecosystems and maintain their productivity in the long term.

In conclusion, microbial biodiversity is an essential element of sustainable agriculture. It contributes to soil fertility, crop protection against disease, resilience in the face of climate change and the overall health of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers therefore have every interest in adopting practices that favor this biodiversity, such as diversifying crops, reducing pesticide use and improving soil health. By doing so, they contribute not only to preserving the environment, but also to a more sustainable and resilient agriculture.